Technology and Culture
Technology is a collection of knowledge and ideas that allow humans to do work more efficiently, quickly, and effectively. Technological change occurs every day. We have made great leaps and bounds forward in many areas since the age of the common man. From the earliest days of the human race, technology has been vital to the success of humankind. Technological change occurs for a variety of reasons, including:
Schatzberg’s schizoscopy provides three distinct approaches to examining technological change. These are cultural, technological, and technical change. Each chapter consists of two sections: a first section that present research questions; and a second section that present evidence based on previous studies of technological change. Both Schatzberg and Runciman (1990) identify three broad categories of technological change. These are: structural, functional, and comparative.
In his valuable book, The Wealth of Nations, political philosopher John Locke illustrated the benefits of applying an educational theory of classical liberal thought, namely, that individuals derive happiness from using their innate faculties, rather than from owning or receiving possessions. According to this idea, people do not act in response to rewards, but rather to achieve personal goals. Because humans are “entitled to the full enjoyment of life,” according to Locke, they should be allowed to pursue all endeavors and goals without the interference of others. In contrast, according to nineteenth-century German thinker, Karl von Schiller, mankind has become the victim of “technological anxiety.” According to Schiller, because humans have become “instrumental” (i.e., tools have been developed to serve man’s needs rather than his wants), man has lost the ability to self-regulate his body and emotions.
According to the Austrian thinker, John Locke, the natural sciences embrace the entire gamut of human activity, as opposed to the narrow view of reality that humans have of themselves. Therefore, humans should be given the chance to use their mind and bodies in any way they see fit. According to Karl von Schiller, humans were created by technology. According to him, humans should be allowed “the freedom of the best means which will satisfy their intellectual and spiritual instincts.” By “best means,” he meant technology should help man attain a state of happiness through his individual talents, such, “The whole energy of man’s body and mind come into union with the creative power of God.” According to the thinker, man’s happiness is therefore incomplete without his participation in cultural arts.
According to the thinker, there is a tension between the term technology and the term science. Technology is said to have replaced the role of the arts in human society, while science seeks truth as the ultimate goal. Thus, the tension between the two terms is a problematic matter for modern students of technology, as they are used to describe two distinct concepts. In this article, we will analyze and compare Schatzberg’s notion of technology and the traditional concept of science with regard to twentieth century industrial society and the relation between science and technology.
According to the thinker, there is a necessary tension between science and technology in the contemporary world. As long as man exists, according to him, there will be a relationship between science and industry. For instance, during the first half of the twentieth century, German industrialists were quite interested in studying the phenomena of light, especially as it was related to the industrial arts. The study of light opened new perspectives for the German scientists and industrialists on the nature of the universe and on the relationship between the human mind and the body.